Hallervorden-Spatz disease now more commonly known as Pantothenate kinase -associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder.

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Pantothenate is another name for vitamin B5, a water soluble vitamin. The following three disorders may present with early clinical symptoms that are similar to those seen in classic PKAN: Hong Kong Medical Journal. Mutations result in an autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A metabolism with resultant deficiency of pantothenate kinase may lead to accretion of cysteine and cysteine-containing compounds in the basal ganglia.

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Mental alertness and intellectual capacities are not affected. Disruption of this enzyme affects energy and lipid metabolism and may lead to accumulation of potentially harmful compounds in the brain, including iron.

Spasticity and muscle rigidity usually begin in the legs and later develop in the arms. Newer forms of chelation therapy, including the drug deferiprone, are being studied to determine if they could be beneficial see www.

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration PKANformerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of specific regions in the central nervous system neurodegenerative disorder. Additional abnormalities may include relatively slow, involuntary, continual writhing movements athetosis or chorea, a related condition characterized by irregular, rapid, jerky movements.


In most cases, Seitelberger disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. No biochemical markers have been found in HSD. However, whether the deposition of iron in basal ganglia in HSD is the cause or consequence of neuronal loss and gliosis is not clear.

Rathore American Journal of Neuroradiology. StatPearls Publishing ; Jan.

Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

None of haallervorden exclusionary factors should be present. A study reporting good outcomes in a single patient with late onset PKAN has been performed. For example, your doctor may prescribe:. Iron in the Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. Serology for Wilson disease was negative.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

Other movement disorders and diseases must be ruled out. Gothwal S, Nayan S. This causes chelation of iron in the globus pallidus and rapid auto-oxidation of cysteine in the presence of iron wit zpatz free radical generation. She had generalized rigidity. Neurologic movement abnormalities may include uncontrolled, irregular, rapid, jerky movements chorea hallervorcen athetosis, a condition characterized by relatively slow, writhing involuntary movements. Clinical and genetic delineation of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

Distorting muscle contractions are a common symptom of HSD. Non-ketotic hyperglycemic chorea—hemiballismus mimicking basal ganglia hemorrhage. In individuals with the disorder, disease duration may range from approximately 10 years up to 25 years or more. The course is characterized by progressive dementia, corticospinal signs e.

Click here to view as Video spahz ABRv After seating for a short time, he was unable to maintain upright posture and bending posture is produced. Neurological examination revealed hyper-extension in neck muscles and because of that she was unable to look downward. Encephalitis Viral encephalitis Herpesviral encephalitis Limbic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Cavernous sinus thrombosis Brain abscess Amoebic.


PKAN is the most common type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation NBIAa group of clinical disorders marked by progressive abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances extrapyramidal. The Johns Hopkins University. An MRI usually shows iron deposits in the basal ganglia. The NCLs are characterized by hallervorven accumulation of certain fatty, granular substances i.

The disrase of PKAN is made based upon a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation, and a variety of specialized tests. Etiology Hallervorden Spatz disease was first diseaae in by two German physicians, Hallervorden and Spatz, as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by cerebral iron deposition and hence the name so.

Developmental screening and assessment for physical, occupational and speech therapy may also be done. Atypical individuals often retain a high level of function into later adulthood and some are known to be living in their sixties to seventies. Classical PKAN develops in the first hlalervorden years of life average age for developing symptoms is three and a half years.

Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus. Clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatments. Nil Conflict of Interest: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlations.