Correlations between in vitro and in vivo data (IVIVC) are often used during pharmaceutical development in order to reduce development time and optimize the. This presentation gives a bird’s eye view on Dissolution in context with IVIVC. It discusses various levels of Correlations currently in practice. Invitro Invivo study & their correlation shortens the drug development period, economizes the resources and leads to improved product quality. Increased activity.

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There are very well established guidances and standards available for establishing bioequivalence between drug profiles and products [ 3 ]. A linear function is preferred for this correlation, although other reasonable mathematical relationships are allowed when properly justified.

Absorption should not be the limiting factor, if the solubility is not the limiting factor in comparison to the drug release, an IVIVC may be attempted. During the early stages of correlation development, dissolution conditions may be altered to attempt to develop a 1-to-1 correlation between the in vitro dissolution profile and the In vivo dissolution profile.

IVIVC is often adequate for justification of therapeutically meaningful release specifications of the formulation. The logical basis for this correlation was the assumption that any dissolved portion of API in vivo would be immediately absorbed due to the nonlimiting permeability of ATV, which allows direct correlation of the ascending part of the dissolution and plasmatic profiles.

Biopharmaceutics Classification System BCS is a fundamental guideline for determining the conditions under which in-vitro, in-vivo correlations are expected [ 25 ]. Authors would like to thank company-Zentiva Group, a. This process of obtaining a drug profile from dissolution results is known as convolution.

For example, BCS class I recommend 15 minutes.

IVIVC – Wikipedia

It should be, however, pointed out that in order to achieve such a relatively simple mathematical model, it is necessary to provide physiologically relevant dissolution results. To establish a reliable in vitro in vivo relationship IVIVC it is important that the artificial environments simulate the biological conditions as closely as possible.

Any well designed and scientifically sound approach would be acceptable for establishment of an IVIVC. Then, the pharmacokinetic parameters are estimated using a nonlinear regression tool or obtained from literatures reported previously. Food and Drug Administration.

BioMed Research International

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. The optimization of formulations may require changes in the composition, manufacturing process, equipment, and batch sizes.


Beyond this range, the specification should be supported by bioequivalence studies [ 43 ]. It can be calculated by Prediction error that is the error in prediction of in vivo property from in vitro property of drug product Figure 3. The fraction of dose absorbed then can be predicted based on these three parameters. Scale up post approval changes Time and cost saving during the product development.

Using the basket method the common agitation is rpm; with the paddle method, it is rpm and 25 rpm for suspension [ 5 ]. However this approach is conceptually difficult to use.

Different IVIVC model are used as a tool for formulation development and evaluation of immediate and extended release dosage forms for setting a dissolution specification and as a surrogate for bioequivalence testing. Validated Ivivv is also serves as justification for a biowaivers ivov filings of a Level 3 or Type II in Europe variation, either during scaleup or post approval, as well as for line extensions e.

This predicted profile could act as a surrogate of the in vivo bioequivalence study. In this cofrelation of correlation, the mean in vitro dissolution time MDT vitro of the product is compared to either mean in vivo residence time MRT or the mean in vivo dissolution time MDTvivo.

Generally, the in-vitro property is the rate or extent of drug dissolution or release while the in-vivo response is the plasma drug concentration or amount of drug correlaiton. As a result, cogrelation approaches to in vitro – in vivo correlation could be developed. Due to the complex nature of the presented apparatus, any modification of the dissolution method can be easily performed.

In vivo absorption of atorvastatin is believed to start only in small intestine and thus a deconvolution of plasmatic profile would yield a fraction of drug absorbed only from small intestine.

IVIV correlation expectation for immediate release product based on biopharmaceutic class. The Wagner Nelson method is less complicated than the Loo- Riegelman as there is no requirement for intravenous data. It can often involved further in vitro method development in the context of the observed results, but clearly with the objective of establishing a definitive IVIVC.

Predictability evaluation was performed by calculating fraction of ATV absorbed versus time with regression equation with in vitro profile as an input. Nevertheless, the dissolution method was developed as a universal, most physiologically relevant simulation of fasted state, and as such it provided results beyond expectation. Deconvolution is a numerical method used to estimate the time course of drug input using a mathematical model based on the convolution integral.

As shown in Figure 17in vivo time scale was scaled nonlinearly, however with a simple reversible mathematical function. View at Google Scholar P. Fdiss Plots and Levy Plots can be used to help determine which of these variables may be applicable.


The compartments are made from modified common intravenous bags the plastic was tested for interaction with various APIs. IVIVC can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals to reduce the number of human studies during the formulation development as the main objective of an IVIVC is to serve as a surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers. For oral dosage forms, the in vitro release is usually measured and considered as dissolution rate.

Predicted plasma concentration and consequent AUC and C max could be calculated using convolution or any other appropriate modeling techniques [ 24 ]. The amorphous generic batches, on the other hand, contained no buffer, which was to slow down the faster dissolution of the amorphous form of the drug.

The latter may involve normalization with a common reference treatment. In Figure 13prediction of Sortis10 plasma concentration is shown.

In vitro – in vivo correlation: from theory to applications.

Various approaches were examined to correlate results for each compartment with corresponding in vivo profiles, but successful outcome was reached only with correlatuon compartment. A dissolution profile of percentage or fraction of drug dissolved versus time then can be determined.

A biowaiver will only be granted if the prediction of the in vivo performance of the product with the modified in vitro release rate remains bioequivalent with the originally tested product i. To receive news and publication updates for BioMed Research International, enter your email address in the box below.

The establishment of correlation needs, as described in the FDA or USP definitions, to use various parameters summarized in following table: Dorrelation the generic batches, four contained amorphous form of the drug batches 85, 82, 01, and 02which had higher intrinsic dissolution rate compared crorelation the crystal form contained in the generic batch80 and all the reference batches Lipitor, Sortis06, Sortis10 [ 10 ].

This observed difference between the buffered and nonbuffered formulation in Golem provided a useful hint on the manner of in vivo dissolution behavior. The pH in stomach compartment was left to change, being influenced by the studied formulation.