JPQL is a powerful query language that allows you to define database queries based on your It is used in all other parts of the query to reference this entity. The Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) is the query language defined by JPA. JPQL can be used in a NamedQuery (through annotations or XML) or in. These extensions, referred to as the EclipseLink Query Language (EQL), provide access to “Query Language” in the JPA Specification.

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IN predicates performs a check that a particular value is in a list of values.

SELECT clause in JPA 2 queries (JPQL / Criteria API)

Caution should be used when executing bulk update or delete operations because they may result in inconsistencies between the database and the entities in the active persistence context.

This expression tests whether the designated value is a member of the collection specified by the collection-valued path expression.

If you need more sophisticated languagr for your query, you can use a native SQL query. If a trim specification is not provided, BOTH is assumed.

This means that results that do not have the relationship will be filtered from the query results. When you choose an inheritance strategy that supports polymorphic queries, your query selects all instances of the specified class and its subclasses. An ALL conditional expression is a predicate that is true if the comparison operation is true for all values in the result of the subquery or the result of the subquery is empty.



The syntax for subqueries is as follows: The HAVING clause must specify search conditions over the grouping items or aggregate functions that apply to grouping items.

The select select selection CriteriaQuery’s method Specify the item that is to be returned in the query result.

Chapter HQL and JPQL

You just need to provide the fully qualified class name and specify the constructor parameters of an existing constructor. The following rules apply to positional parameters. Because construction of managed entity objects has some overhead, queries that return non entity objects, as the two queries above, are usually more efficient. The WHERE clause is normally the main part of the query as it defines the conditions that filter what is returned.

Java Persistence/JPQL

This script outputs the product breadcrumb required for edocs documentation. Some JPA providers may support these.

The identification variable art designates a member of this collection, a single Article abstract schema type instance. If it does represent an entity, the resulting instances are returned in the NEW state not managed! Either positional or named parameters may be used. The character sequence must begin languae a Java identifier start character, and all other characters must be Java identifier part characters.

If the reffrence of a query corresponds to a association-field or state-field whose value is null, that null value is returned in the result of the query method.

SELECT clause (JPQL / Criteria API)

KEY Valid only for Maps. But there is an important difference that I want to point out before I walk you through the different parts of a JPQL query.

Object is totally valid! Learn how your comment data is processed. In the example, using an inner join instead would have resulted in customers without any orders being filtered out of the result. Special thanks to all Thoughts on Java Supporters for supporting this article!


Entity names are scoped within the persistence unit and must be unique within the persistence unit. Enums can even be referenced as literals.

The type of the path expression is the type computed as the result of navigation; that is, the type of the state-field or association-field to which the expression navigates.

Criteria queries offer a type-safe approach to querying. Arithmetic expressions are composed of other arithmetic expressions, arithmetic operations, path expressions that evaluate to numeric values, numeric literals, and numeric input parameters. Any class with a compatible constructor can be used as a result class. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world.

So if the CreditCardPayment entity and WireTransferPayment entity each extend from Payment all three types would be available to the query.

Simple case expression example select case c. HQL can also understand additional functions defined by the Dialect as well as the application. Entities are designated in query strings by their entity names. Note, however, that this is a Hibernate specific feature and will not work in a portable manner.

The following query returns a set of magazines. The basis for the navigation is provided by the association-fields authors and product of the abstract schema types Magazine and Article respectively.